What is Object Oriented Programming
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Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a high-level computer programming language that implements objects and their associated procedures within the programming context to create software programs. The object-oriented language uses an object-oriented programming technique that binds related data and functions into an object and encourages reuse of these objects within the same and other programs. Most object-oriented languages implement a concept of visibility. An object class and its features can be defined with various degrees of visibility. Private features are only visible for the class itself; public features are visible for everyone.
Concepts in OOP’s:
Encapsulation: Iyt means that the unnecessary details of an object are hidden from the user but the user can access the essential details which are required at a specific time. So, encapsulation is also known as hiding of information. In object-oriented concepts, encapsulation is required because classes share data and methods between themselves when we design classes. Encapsulation is the most important characteristic that secures the data and the methods of a class.
Abstraction: The concept of abstraction is implemented in object-oriented programming by creating classes. In the class, all the attributes of the objects of the classes are defined. Therefore data cannot be stored in a class because when we create a class it does not allow any space to the class. so if you want to store data, you have to create objects of the class, which have memory allocated as soon as it is created. Similar to encapsulation, abstraction allows you to provide restricted access to the data. Abstraction means to ignore the unnecessary details of an object and accessing essential details. To implement abstraction, you have to use encapsulation features. Encapsulation hides the inappropriate details of an object and abstraction makes only the appropriate details of an object visible.
Inheritance: It allows you to enlarge the functionality of a class that already exists. You make a class that uses the attributes and behavior of another class. It doesn’t mean that the new class only acquires the attributes of the existing class but it consists of a few new attributes and behaviors that are specific to the class. In classes and objects, attributes are data and behavior refers to the methods. For example, you might have the class “Bird”. Flying bird is another class under the class “Bird”. The class flying bird is the child class of class “Bird”. Inheritance enables you to add new features and functionality to an existing class without changing the existing class.
Polymorphism: Polymorphism is obtained from two Latin words-Poly and Morph, Poly means many, and morph means forms. Anything can be called as polymorph when it presents in more than one form. You might have noticed that a person assumes different roles in different scenarios. In object-oriented methodology, polymorphism is the characteristic that facilitates you to assign a special meaning or usage to an entity in different circumstances. The entity can be a variable, method, or an object. In other words, a programmer can use of an entity in a number of different forms without affecting the existing identity of the entity.
computer programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic.
කාර්යයන් සහ තර්කනයට වඩා දත්ත හෝ වස්තු වටා මෘදුකාංග නිර්මාණය කරන පරිගණක ක්රමලේඛන ආකෘතිය. (OOP)
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