What is Programming?
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a specific task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms’ accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding).The source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, which is directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task (which can be as complex as an operating system) on a computer, often for solving a given problem. Proficient programming thus often requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.
Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: testing, debugging, source code maintenance, implementation of build systems, and management of derived artifacts, such as the machine code of computer programs. These might be considered part of the programming process, but often the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Reverse engineering is a related process used by designers, analysts and programmers to understand and re-create/re-implement.
read more on https://www.codecademy.com/articles/what-is-programming
video _ https://youtu.be/FCMxA3m_Imc
Responsive Navigation Menu Bar in HTML CSS
Hey friends, today in this blog you’ll learn how to create a Fully Responsive Navigation Menu Bar using only HTML & CSS. In the earlier blog, I have shared how to create a Responsive Sidebar Menu using HTML & CSS and now it’s time to create a navigation bar in HTML.
As you know the Menu Bar or Navigation Bar (Navbar) is important for any kind of website. Many websites have a responsive navbar or a responsive navbar with a dropdown menu. Essentially, responsive design is a way to put together a website so that it automatically scales its content and elements to match the screen size on which it is viewed. It keeps images from being larger than the screen width and prevents visitors from mobile devices from needing to do extra work to read your content.
In our design (Responsive Navigation Bar), as you can see in the preview image, there is a horizontal navigation bar or navbar with a logo on the left side and some navigation links on the right side. This is a very simple navigation bar and it is created using only HTML & CSS.
The best part about this navigation bar is, it is fully responsive for any kind of device including mobile phones. On the pc, this navigation bar displayed in a horizontal line but on mobile devices, this navbar or navigation bar displayed in a vertical line. On the mobile, you have the option to show or hide the menu bar by clicking on the hamburger menu icon.
Video tutorial of Responsive Navigation Menu Bar
In the video tutorial, you have seen this is a pure CSS responsive navigation bar and I’ve used CSS @media property to make this navigation bar fully responsive for mobile devices. If you like this responsive navigation bar and want to get source codes of this program then you can easily copy the codes of this tutorial from the given copy boxes or you can also download the code files of this navigation menu bar.
If you’re a beginner and you know a little bit of HTML & CSS then the codes and concept of this responsive navigation menu bar will definitely help you to understand HTML & CSS more. This is a very simple responsive navigation bar with few and clean codes.
Responsive Navigation Menu Bar [Source Codes]
To create this responsive navigation bar. First, you need to create two Files one HTML File and another one is CSS File. After creating these files just paste the following codes into your file. You can also download the source code files of this responsive navigation menu bar from the below download button.
That’s all, now you’ve successfully created a Responsive Navigation Menu Bar using HTML & CSS. If your code doesn’t work or you’ve faced any errors/problems then please download the source code files from the given download button. It’s free and a .zip file will be downloaded then you’ve to extract it.
Download Code Files In Below Link
Create By Dashon Weinman
How to Become a Computer Programmer
If you want to learn computer programming, there are several key steps. Your goals may vary, depending on whether you are looking for a career in web design, operating systems, video games, or mobile apps, but planning out your future is important no matter which path you take.
There are five steps to becoming a programmer:
Decide which type of training is right for you;
Choose the best major/degree for your career goals;
Get an internship in a tech-related field;
Consider earning certifications;
Build valuable job experience.
Step 1: Decide Which Type of Training is Best for You
First, consider the best type of training for you. There are several options available, and the best choice will often depend on the individual. Some people learn better in a classroom environment, while others may prefer more direct, hands-on training.
You should consider which of the following options is the best fit for your personal learning style.
A technical institute or trade school can be an alternative way to learn how to become a computer programmer. One of the advantages is that a degree at a technical institute generally only takes two years, instead of the four years required for a college degree. It also saves you money on tuition, since you’ll be finished with your education sooner and able to jump right into the workforce.
Another key difference is that a technical institute will focus purely on your computer programming training, without any additional courses outside of your major. A four-year degree, by comparison, requires students to take additional general education courses in literature, history, and the arts. These additional courses give students a more well-rounded education and help provide them with more career options, particularly if you ever decided to change careers later in life. But if you want to pursue a more focused education that stays centered on the specific skills you need to learn computer programming, then a technical institute might be the best choice.
College or University
A traditional college education is the most common choice, and it provides students with the most well-rounded education. It’s also the best choice for students who want to continue their education with a master’s degree. The higher cost of tuition for a four-year college is offset by the fact that college graduates tend to earn higher salaries. They’re also the best choice for students who do well learning in a classroom setting.
Earning a college degree can also offer you more options when it comes to choosing your major, or for adding a minor to your degree. The wider range of options can be helpful for students who aren’t sure which path suits them best. Because of the overlap in areas of study, it’s often possible to take courses from a variety of related disciplines before settling on the best choice for you.
If you prefer to work from home, you can also learn programming online. An online degree allows you the freedom to fit your coursework into your schedule, which can be ideal for parents or people who are working full time while they go to school. The most important thing to keep in mind when pursuing an online degree is making sure you attend an accredited school to ensure employer acceptance.
Top online schools for computer sciences include Capella University, which offers degrees in Information Technology and Systems Development; and Grand Canyon University, which offers degrees in Computer Programming.
Teaching Yourself Programming
If you’re a motivated self-starter, you can also try to learn programming from home. The internet is filled with online tutorials, samples of code in different languages, and other free resources you can use. By following an online how-to guide, you can become a programmer while learning at your own pace and setting your own curriculum.
You might decide to teach yourself programming at home, but that option doesn’t work for everyone. Teaching yourself computer programming from home isn’t easy. It takes a lot of time, dedication, and hard work.It can be difficult for some people to learn programming skills without the guidance of a teacher. Also, an experienced learning institution is likely to know more about the best steps to take and the most effective way to learn the required skills. You might want to consider a more traditional form of education if you aren’t sure you can do it on your own.
Step 2: Choosing a Degree & Major
A well-rounded education is crucial to success in the computer programming field. Consider your career goals and the amount of time you’re willing to dedicate to education when deciding which degree level to pursue.
An associate’s degree can offer you a basic education in computer programming, and might be enough to get you started in some entry level programming jobs. Most higher-level jobs, however, will require a more advanced degree. You might want to consider getting a two-year degree if you want to get into the workforce sooner, then continue working towards a more advanced degree later on.
Purdue University Global Associate of Applied Science in Information Technology / Programming & Software Development
Champlain College Associate of Science in Software Development
A bachelor’s degree, a four-year program, is best for most basic programming careers. This degree will give you all of the skills you need to work in a variety of programming fields, and many universities offer a variety of specializations, such as information technology, network administration, or software development. A four-year program will also allow you to acquire a general education in other helpful areas, such as report writing, public speaking, and critical thinking, which can be helpful tools to strengthen your career.
Western Governors University Bachelor of Science in Software Development
Grand Canyon University Bachelor of Science in Computer Programming
A master’s degree is the best choice if you want to maximize your career potential. Getting a master’s degree in computer programming will not only give you a wider array of skills, it will also make you more valuable to a potential employer. Programmers with a master’s degree generally earn higher salaries, and it will provide you with more career options to choose from. Also, some employers offer tuition reimbursement to help their employees pay for a more advanced degree, so getting your master’s degree might be something you decide to pursue after you’re already working in the programming field. You will need to have a bachelor’s before enrolling in a master’s program but your undergraduate education can be in any field, not just computer science.
Liberty University Master of Science in Information Technology / Software Design & Management
Jacksonville State University Master of Science in Computer Systems & Software Design
Majors & Minors
In addition to deciding whether to get an associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s degree, you should consider the specific major you want to pursue. Many colleges and universities offer a variety of related degree options for students to choose from. In addition, you might want to consider adding a minor to help supplement your education with additional skills beyond programming itself.
Great major choices include:
Programming / Software Development: The classic choice for aspiring computer programmers. A computer programming major focuses on various computer languages and software development.
Information Systems: Focus is placed on systems administration and information systems, and will teach you everything you need to know about server networking, databases, and web design.
Computer Science: The most common and expansive, focusing on programming, math, algorithms, and data structures.
Information Technology: This degree teaches you how to manage data, store it, organize it, analyze it, and display it for users. The data you manage can be anything from account information, statistics, research data, and more, and effective information management can be crucial for the decision-making processes in many companies.
Information Security: Focus is placed on web and network security and how to protect against various threats, such as viruses and other types of cyber attacks.
Complementary minors include:
Mathematics: Math is crucial in computer programming, and adding a minor in mathematics can supplement your programming skills and make you a better problem solver.
Electrical or Computer Engineering: While computer programming focuses on the development of software, learning about engineering can teach you more about the creation of computer hardware. This can give you a broader understanding of computer systems as a whole, and improve your career options.
Art or Music: If you want to get involved in computer graphics, visual design, or audio and video programming, it’s a good idea to supplement your computer skills with knowledge of art and music. This way, you can combine your artistic talents and your programming skills to create stunning digital art, video game graphics, and more.
Business: A business minor can help you with understanding the purpose behind the programs you develop, such as if you are writing programs for a banking institution or retail company. An understanding of business can also help you move up into management, becoming a supervisor in an IT department.
Step 3: Certifications
Finally, you should consider whether you want to get a certification in programming. You can get certified in a certain computer language, such as C++ or Java, or in certain systems, such as by becoming a Cisco Certified Network Associate or a Microsoft Certified Systems Associate. Certifications may be required by some companies before they’ll hire you, while in other cases they will open more doors for you and help you maximize your earning potential. A certificate can also be useful if you want to learn a new, specific skill, such as learning an additional programming language to broaden your skillset.
University of Massachusetts – Lowell Certificate in Java Development
University of Massachusetts – Lowell Certificate in Linux / UNIX
Step 4: Get an Internship in Technology
An internship can be a great way to build your programming experience and help you succeed in the job market. Many internships are unpaid, but if you are pursuing a computer programming major in a college or university, you can use the internship to earn course credit towards your degree. An internship can also teach you real-world skills that go beyond what you’ll receive in your education. This experience will help improve your resume and increase your chances of finding work after your education is complete.
A computer programming internship can be a good opportunity to learn specific programming languages that are used in a certain industry. For example, an internship working with database technologies can be a good way to learn SQL, while working for a web-based company is a good opportunity to learn Java. It can also be a good idea to get an internship at a tech-based company, such as one that specializes in networking, web development, or smartphone apps, rather than a non-tech company like a bank or retail corporation. While non-tech companies still need programmers and are likely to have internships available, you’re likely to learn more from a company that specializes in programming and technology.
Step 5: Build Valuable Job Experience
Building your computer programming career starts with developing some early job experience. Most well-paid positions are going to require several years of practical experience, so it’s important to start building your resume early.
An internship is one good way to build some experience, and it may also give you an opportunity for a more permanent job once the internship is complete. Another good option for students is on-campus jobs. Many universities hire student workers for various positions, such as IT jobs, web development, and network support. These jobs will offer on-the-job training as a supplement to your computer programming classes, and you’ll get practical experience that will help you find a full-time job after you graduate.
Another option for someone with a computer programming degree is to seek out freelance work. Freelancers work with clients on a single project, or a series of individual contracts. You can work from home, communicating with your clients online and providing them with whatever programming services they may need. You may be able to develop a steady client base, or you could use your time freelancing to develop valuable work experience that will help you gain a full-time programming job later on.
Once you’ve found steady work as a computer programmer, you can improve your career options by continuing your education and updating your certifications. If you start out your career with a bachelor’s degree, going back to school to get your master’s can help expand your career options or give you a better chance of getting promotions. You may also need to update your certifications, since computer programming is a fast-changing field where new developments happen every day. You may need to learn new programming languages, or you might want to branch out into different fields so that you aren’t limited to a single career path.
Computer Programming Careers
If you’re still not sure whether you want to become a computer programmer, consider career outlook.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median computer programmer salary was $79,530 in 2015. The top 10% of computer programmers earn over $130,800.
The number of computer programming jobs available in this field is projected to drop by 8% from 2015 to 2024, but there are better opportunities in certain parts of the country compared to others. California, Texas, New York, Illinois, and New Jersey are the top states for employment in the computer programming field. These states have both the highest number of jobs available and average salaries that are higher than the national average.
This career is a great choice for people with strong skills in math, logic, and problem solving. It many cases, it also allows people to work from home, submitting work online or using the internet to connect to servers that need to be debugged. If you aren’t good with numbers and computers, however, or if desk work doesn’t appeal to you, this wouldn’t be the career path for you.
Once you become a programmer, you might also want to expand your career options by pursuing opportunities in related fields. Each of these fields generally requires a bachelor’s degree in computer science, so depending on the type of education you pursue, you may qualify for jobs in these fields as well:
Computer Network Architect
Computer Systems Analyst
Software Systems Developer
10 Tips for Better Coding
Writing code can sometimes be the most difficult part of any software development process. If you don’t organize everything from the start – especially for big projects — the coding processes and code management afterwards may end up not just time consuming, but also a big headache.
Good code is maintainable, reusable, and testable. The following tips address how you and/or your development team can handle various coding tasks and how to keep everything as neat as possible. I will introduce you to some “best practices” that will help you write better code and help make you and your team happy and efficient.
1. Use a Coding Standard
It’s easy to write bad, unorganized code, but it’s hard to maintain such code. Good code typically follows some standard for naming conventions, formatting, etc. Such standards are nice because they make things deterministic to those who read your code afterwards, including yourself.
You can create your own coding standard, but it’s better to stick to one with wider-acceptance. Publicly maintained standards like Zend Framework Coding Standard or soon to be PSR-1 Coding Style Guide instead, it will be easier for others to adapt.
2. Write Useful Comments
Comments are crucial. You won’t appreciate them until you leave your thousand-line script for a couple of days and return to and try and make sense of it. Useful comments make life easier for yourself and those after you who have to maintain your code.
Write meaningful, single line comments for vague lines; write full parameter and functionality descriptions for functions and methods; for tricky logic blocks, describe the logic in words before it if necessary. And don’t forget, always keep your comments up to date!
Code refactoring is the eighth habit of highly effective developers. Believe it or not, you should be refactoring your code on a daily bases or your code is not in good health! Refactoring keeps your code healthy, but what should you refactor and how?
You should be refactoring everything, from your architecture to your methods and functions, variables names, the number of arguments a method receives, etc.
How to refactor is more of an art more than a science, but there are a few rules of thumb that can shed some light on it:
If your function or method is more than 20-25 lines, it’s more likely that you are including too much logic inside it, and you can probably split it into two or more smaller functions/methods.
If your method/function name is more than 20 characters, you should either rethink the name, or rethink the whole function/method by reviewing the first rule.
If you have a lot of nested loops then you may be doing some resource-intensive processing without realizing it. In general, you should rethink the logic if you are nesting more than 2 loops. Three nested loops is just horrible!
Consider if there are any applicable design patterns your code can follow. You shouldn’t use patterns just for the sake of using patterns, but patterns offer tried-and-true ready-thought solutions that could be applicable.
4. Avoid Global Code
Global variables and loops are a mess and can prove problematic when your application grows to millions of lines of code (which most do!). They may influence code elsewhere that is difficult to discern, or cause noisy naming clashes. Think twice before you pollute the global namespace with variables, functions, loops, etc.
In an ideal case, you should have no blocks defined globally. That is. all switch statements, try-catch, foreach, while-loops, etc. should be written inside a method or a function. Methods should be written inside class definitions, and class and function definitions should be within namespaces.
5. Use Meaningful Names
Never use names like $k, $m, and $test for your variables. How do expect to read such code in the future? Good code should be meaningful in terms of variable names, function/method names, and class names. Some good examples of meaningful names are: $request, $dbResult, and $tempFile (depending on your coding style guidelines these may use underscores, camelCase, or PascalCase).
6. Use Meaningful Structures
7. Use Version Control Software
In the old days, good development teams relied on CVS and diff patches for version control. Nowadays, though, we have a variety of solutions available. Managing changes and revisions should be easy but effective, so pick whatever version control software that will work best with the workflow of your development team. I prefer using a distributed version control tool like Git or Mercurial; both are free software/open source and very powerful.
If you don’t know what version control software is, I’d recommend reading Sean Hudgston’s series Introduction to Git.
8. Use Automated Build Tools
Try to use tools like Ant or Phing to get your source prepared, compressed, and deployed. Building your whole application with a single command is a marvelous way to prevent errors and omissions that are inherent when performing repetitive tasks, and is a generally core pre-requisite for automated testing strategies. I recommend using Phing, it’s a well-supported build tool for PHP written to mimic Ant; if you aren’t familiar with it, check out Shammer C’s article Using Phing, the PHP Build Tool and Vito Tardia’s article Deploy and Release Your Application with Phing.
9. Use Code Documenters
For large applications spanning several classes and namespaces, you should have automatically generated API documentation. This is very useful and keeps the development team aware of “what’s what.” And if you work on several projects at the same time, you will find such documentation a blessing since you may forget about structures switching back and forth between projects. One such documenter you might consider using is DocBlox.
10. Use a Testing Framework
There are a plenty of tools that I really appreciate, but by far the ones I appreciate the most are the frameworks that help automate the testing process. Testing (particularly systematic testing) is crucial to every piece of your million dollar application. Good testing tools are PHPUnit and SimpleTest for unit testing your PHP Classes. For GUI testing, I recommend SeleniumHQ tools.
In this post you saw an overview of some of the best practices for writing better code, including using a coding standard to unify code formatting across the whole team, the importance of refactoring and how to embrace it, and using professional tools like testing frameworks, code documenters, and version control to help manage your codebase. If you’re not following these tips already, it’s worth the effort to adopt them and get your team on track.
How To Make An App (In 9 Steps)
You’ve got a big idea for the next killer app. But… how do you make an app?
In this tutorial I’ll show you how to bring your app ideas to life. Here’s what we’ll dive into:
What’s the best way to learn iOS development?
How to build your app with Xcode and Swift
How to make tangible progress towards realizing your app project
Needed parts for your app project: design, UI/UX, a landing page, mockups
How can you launch and promote your app, to get more app installs?
Tools that can help you speed up the app development process
The required steps to publish your app in the App Store
What happens after you launch your app?
The 9 steps to make an app are:
Sketch your app idea
Do some market research
Create mockups of your app
Make your app’s graphic design
Build your app landing page
Make the app with Xcode and Swift
Launch the app in the App Store
Market your app to reach the right people
Improve your app with user feedback
1. Sketch Your App Idea
Every app starts with an idea. It doesn’t need to be big, ground-breaking or clever. Just an idea is good enough.
Sketch out your app idea with pen and paper. The goal is to make the idea tangible. You define how your app works and what its features are, before you start developing the app. It’s as simple as that!
You don’t need any special tools to sketch your app idea. A pen and a notepad is enough. Start sketching, make a list of features, and see if the idea comes to life on paper.
Here’s a few sketches of apps I recently designed:
Sketch your app with pen and paper
I like to separate the features of the app into two groups: Must Haves and Nice To Haves. The Must Haves are features that your app can’t do without, and the Nice To Haves are features that are great but not crucial.
When you make an app, you want the app to be as lean and mean as possible. That’s called a Minimum Viable Product (MVP), and it’s the first, simplest version of your app. When you focus on what matters most, you speed up your app development process and make your app more resilient against setbacks.
A few questions you can ask yourself:
What features can you leave out?
Which feature is a unique selling point or money-maker?
Are there any features that make your app bloated, or slow building it down?
A good app does one thing well. Some examples:
A note-taking app like Bear is superb for taking notes
A transportation app like Uber helps people go from A to B – the other features are secondary
A game app like Two Dots is great at entertaining people – it shouldn’t try to do more
It’s tempting to make an app with a lot of features. This only obscures the one thing your app is good at. Make sure your app does one thing only, and does it well.
Time: Spend a few hours, up to a few days, on sketching your app.
Cost: Free. (Use pen and paper.)
Don’t overestimate the importance of ideas. Your app’s success is determined by “idea x execution”. Making an app that works well is more important than finding an idea that is perfect. Don’t bother finding a unique idea; it’s not required for success.
2. Do Some Market Research
Market research is often skipped by app developers, even though it’s an important part of making an app. You can save yourself time and effort down the line by doing research up front.
Before you make an app, you want to know if your app idea is viable. You’re asking questions like:
What are alternative apps and competitors in the marketplace?
What do potential customers want? What are their needs and desires?
How much should I charge for my app? What’s a good business model?
Doing market research before you make your app can save you from making a lot of mistakes early on. You validate assumptions and assess the needs of potential customers.
Two types of market research are especially helpful:
Finding out what mistakes your competitors are making
Finding out if people are looking for an app like yours
That’s right! You can estimate the demand for an app without making it first. In this tutorial I’ll show you exactly how to use Google Trends and Keyword Planner to measure demand for a simple to-do list app.
Use Google Trends to do market research
Finding insights also serves another purpose. You want to walk in the shoes of your customers, so to speak. Instead of assessing needs and desires while sitting safely in front of your computer, you want to get out there and talk to people.
Who is your app for? What are they like? How does your app impact a particular problem that users are struggling with? How are they currently solving that problem? What change do you, with your app, seek to make?
Based on your research you can clearly define the problem your app solves, and who you solve that problem for. You use these insights to make an app that serves its users better.
Time: Spend a few days discovering, to create space for ideas.
Cost: You can do this for free, or invest some money in pro tools.
Sometimes you just want to make an app for yourself. And that’s alright! You can do research for the fun of it, and to practice your craft, and make your app however you see fit. Don’t underestimate the importance of preparation, research and insight, though!
3. Create Mockups of Your App
It’s best to make mockups before you start to build the app. A mockup is a rough sketch of your app’s layout, user interfaces (UIs) and flow.
Here’s an example:
How to make an app – app mockups
In the image above you see how I’ve outlined three important UIs of my app Crest in Balsamiq Mockups. It’s a pretty rough sketch, right?
Mockups don’t include:
Fine-grained UI elements
Exact positioning of UI elements
Complex color schemes and effects
A mockup shows you what an app looks like, without distracting you with unnecessary details. It’s a functional instead of aesthetic approach to your app’s design.
A mockup should also describe the flow and interactions of your app. What happens when you tap on that button? How do you get from screen A to screen B? What is navigation flow of your app?
I recommend you use Balsamiq Mockups for making a mockup of your app. The software includes a great number of UI templates, and they’ve struck a good balance between roughness and flexibility. I’ve used Balsamiq for years – it’s an app that really sticks with you, and fits my workflow well.
When you’re making an app for a client or employer, creating a mockup is a good opportunity to show them the end result before building the app. You can guide them through the UI, by using the mockups, and help them see and imagine the complete app. I always use mockups in sales meetings with clients.
It’s also a great idea to create a functional-technical design next to your mockup. You describe what the app does in simple words. You can create annotations in your mockup software, or just create a text document that explains how the app works.
Time: A few days or 1-2 weeks, depending on your app’s complexity.
Cost: $89 for Balsamiq Mockups 3 for Desktop – well worth it!
Don’t skimp on making mockups. A mockup helps you fix basic UI/UX problems early on, and it’s a great way to enroll your team, client or employer in your app project.
4. Make Your App’s Graphic Design
Now that your project is taking shape, it’s time to make a graphic design for your app. Your app’s design includes pixel-perfect visual details, graphic effects, image assets, and sometimes even animations and motion design.
I recommend two approaches for making the graphics of your app:
Do it yourself with a graphics template
Hire a professional graphic designer
Professional graphic designers spend years practicing and perfecting their craft, and a good graphic designer can deliver results 100x greater than an inexperienced designer, such as yourself (assuming you’re a developer).
As an app developer you need to play to your strengths, and that means outsourcing work you’re not particularly good at. Take advantage of platforms like Upwork or Toptal to hire a professional graphic designer.
If you want to go it alone, don’t reinvent the wheel. Use a design template specially made for iOS apps to save time. Use the template’s building blocks to create your own design, and then customize them after.
Here’s an example of an app graphic design in Sketch:
App graphic design in Sketch
There are a few templates I like in particular:
NOW, TETHR and DO by InVision
iOS iPhone GUI from Facebook
Stark UI kit by Baianat
Stitch by Lina Seleznyova
Phoenix by Adrian Chiran
Apply Pixels by Michael Flarup
Especially the iOS kit from Facebook is helpful, because it includes pixel-perfect UI elements of iOS itself. You can use it to create detailed mockups with the default iOS UI.
Be aware of copyright and licensing when using someone else’s original work. Copyright law is real and universal. You can’t just copy and use stuff you find on the internet. When a usage license isn’t explicitly provided, assume that you can’t use the work in your own projects.
You can use tools like Photoshop, Sketch and Affinity Designer to create the graphic design for your app. I recommend Sketch, because it has built-in support for mobile app designs, and it can export directly to @2x and @3x image assets.
The end result (or “deliverable”) you aim for, is a set of images and assets you can import into Xcode. You use the graphics files as the basis for your work in Interface Builder or with SwiftUI (see below).
You can’t import a Sketch or Photoshop design directly, so you’ll have to recreate it in Interface Builder and/or Xcode to build your app. You lay out views in Interface Builder, import image assets, and set up Auto Layout constraints, to bring the UI of your app to life.
Oh, and don’t forget to check out the Human Interface Guidelines. They are exceptionally helpful for understanding how iOS design works, so you can take advantage of the design of iOS when making your app. In fact, Apple’s documentation is a treasure trove of insights into app development..
Time: A few days, up to a few weeks. Ask your designer for a quote.
Cost: A good template is free or cheap. Ask your designer for a quote.
You can find my own process, for going from idea to app, right here: How I Went From App Idea To App
5. Build Your App Landing Page
App developers often overlook app marketing. Just because you made a great app does not mean that people will find it. How can people discover your app?
You should at least create an landing page for your app, and ideally before you build your app. Here’s an example:
How to make an app – app landing page
This website is for my app Crest. It explains briefly what the app does, who its for, and why it’s a helpful app. The page also includes a call to action (CTA) to sign up for the app invite waitlist.
This is an opportunity to connect with potential app users early on, before your app has been launched in the App Store. You don’t yet have an App Store page to show to people, so a landing page website is crucial to have.
As an app developer you want to create a connection between you and a prospect customer, to let a conversation happen. Such a conversation can then lead to a user trying out your app or becoming a customer.
Your app’s page needs the following components:
A clear headline at the top of the page
A brief introductory paragraph or explainer video
An app screenshot or iPhone mockup
A call to action, i.e. to sign up or install the app
A breakdown of app features and benefits
A story about the app’s creators, or an “About Us” section
You can play around with the exact order of these elements. It’s best to put the headline and call to action above the “fold” of the page. But it’s not uncommon to put a story or “About Us” section high up on the page, to make that personal connection with people.
The page serves as a central point that you can lead people to, if they are interested in learning more about your app. And when you’re still building your app, you don’t have an app page in the App Store yet, so you’ll need something else to attract potential customers.
Even when you have an App Store page (example), you can’t blog on that page, send out newsletters, or ask for feedback from early adopters. A simple web page goes a long way in creating a lasting connection with the people you want to reach, and serve. It’s smart to ask for their email address too, so you can keep in touch.
Effective tools to build your webpages are Strikingly, WordPress and Leadpages. None of those tools require any knowledge of HTML.
In 2021, many app developers still see their App Store page as the only channel to market their apps. That’s a missed opportunity, because there are plenty of other marketing channels that can bring in app installs. Many of those work best with a website, so consider building a landing page when you’re creating your app.
Time: A few days. Don’t make it pixel perfect!
Cost: Free, or up to $100 a month for a good landing page builder.
6. Make the App with Xcode and Swift
We’re finally here. It’s time to build your app!
Now that you’ve laid the groundwork for your app project, building the app itself becomes much easier. You’ve created mockups, your app’s design, and taken the first steps in marketing your app with a website. Way to go!
You build iOS apps with Xcode and Swift. The Xcode IDE includes a project manager, code editor, built-in documentation, debugging tools, and Interface Builder, a tool you use to create your app’s user interface. Everything you need to make an iOS app!
Swift is a powerful and intuitive programming language, and it’s the default programming language to build iOS, macOS, iPadOS, tvOS and watchOS apps. If you’re learning iOS development today, I recommend you learn Swift instead of Objective-C. Next to UIKit and Storyboards, we’ve got a great new tool to build User Interfaces (UIs) at our disposal: SwiftUI.
You can install your own iOS apps on your iPhone or iPad, via Xcode, with a free Apple Developer Account. Signing up is really easy!
How to make an app – Xcode
Xcode only runs on macOS, so you’ll need access to a Mac computer if you want to make iOS apps. You can find alternatives for here: Xcode for Windows: Develop iOS Apps on PC
You can divide app development into two categories:
Front-end: This is the part of the app you can see. It includes layout, navigation, graphics, user interaction, animation and data processing.
Back-end: This is the part of the app you can’t see. It includes databases, networking, data storage, and user management.
When you build the front-end of your app, you are creating the app’s User Interfaces, and you determine what needs to happen when users interact with your app. You set up the navigation of your app, and you build the app’s features.
The back-end of your app mostly stores data. Many apps these days make use of cloud-based back-ends, like Firebase or Parse Server.
When data is created in the app, such as photos, tweets or social media posts, this data is uploaded to the cloud and stored in a database. The app keeps local copies of that data, and updates them whenever new data comes in.
As a developer, you integrate the front-end and the back-end with each other. Imagine you’re building a Twitter app. You build user interfaces to create and view tweets, and you connect those UIs to the back-end database. Newly created tweets are saved in the database, and previously stored tweets can be read from the database.
A great number of tools can speed up the app development process. You don’t have to code everything on your own. Thanks to an engaged open source community and the proliferation of commercial development tools, you have an armada of tools, libraries and frameworks to choose from.
Here’s a quick pick of my favorite tools for building iOS apps:
Xcode, Interface Builder, Swift and SwiftUI for iOS development
Balsamiq Mockups and Sketch for graphic design and UI/UX
CocoaPods and libraries like Alamofire, SwiftyJSON and MBProgressHUD
Firebase, Parse Platform, Realm and Core Data for storage and databases
Fastlane automates your app publishing workflow (among other things)
PaintCode turns your visually designed UI elements into working Swift code
The Apple Developer Documentation has super helpful articles, tutorials and documentation on pretty much every iOS component
TestFlight is the default platform to beta test your app (see below), and with it you can distribute your app to up to 10.000 devices
Learning to build iOS apps is challenging, just like learning any other skill. Swift, Xcode and the many development tools that are available today make it easier than ever to make your own apps.
If you feel inspired to learn iOS development, I recommend you purchase a good book or course. You can learn almost anything online for free these days, including iOS development with tutorials. Doing so isn’t always a good idea.
Learning only with tutorials is a bad approach, because you miss out on many fundamental topics and best practices. Most iOS tutorials only teach you superficial coding tricks, and as a result you’ll lack the foundation to code on your own.
Some online courses, like my own iOS development course, have the added benefit of giving you access to a members-only community. You can connect with the developers like yourself, who are facing the same challenges as you.
My course also gives you 1-on-1 access to your course instructor, so you can ask questions and get help when you need it. This has proven to be vital to the learning experience of developers.
And last but not least: don’t forget to practice! Practice makes perfect. There’s no point in watching YouTube videos about iOS development if you aren’t going to practice what you learn.
Self-taught developers know this, because they’ve spent years finding solutions on their own, while learning programming. This idea isn’t always incorporated in courses, books and tutorials.
Most beginner developers struggle to go from following iOS tutorials to writing code on their own, and that’s exactly where practice leads you to mastery. You want to set aside some time in the day, or during the week, to practice, experiment, to make mistakes, and to learn new techniques.
Time: 1-2 weeks for an MVP, or weeks/months for a complete app.
Cost: Free for DIY, commercial apps often cost upwards of $25k.
Master iOS development with Swift and Xcode with my immersive and comprehensive iOS development course, here at LearnAppMaking. You get access to our developer community, and 1-on-1 help when you need it. » Learn more
7. Launch Your App in the App Store
Are you ready to launch your app? Now that you’ve built the app, it is time to launch it in the App Store.
The process to publish your app in the App Store is straightforward:
Register for an Apple Developer Account
Prepare your app’s title and meta data with App Store Connect
Upload your latest app build to the App Store with Xcode
Apple reviews your app, following the App Store Review Guidelines
When your app is approved, it’s published live in the App Store
DONE! People can now download and install your app
Once you’ve published your app, you get an App Store page like this one:
App Store page
Image courtesy of RED Software
Making an app, and publishing it in the App Store, is exhilarating! It’s quite a thrill, and a great feeling to have built something, put it out in the world, for others to see and experience. Seeing “Ready for Sale” in App Store Connect still gives me butterflies…
When you’ve published your app, the work doesn’t stop. In fact, it has only just begun! Once you’ve gathered some early adopter feedback (see below), you go back to the drawing board to improve your app.
You do some market research, improve your mockups and designs, and build new features. You launch the next version of your app in the App Store, and the cycle restarts again. This is an iterative process.
You also need to promote your app. I recommend you start promoting your app before you launch it. You generate some buzz before you launch, so you hit the ground running when you actually launch.
Here’s some ideas:
Start a blog and use content marketing to tell people about your app
Submit your app to curated platforms, like Product Hunt
Get local publicity and build a connection with influencers in your field
Create an onboarding campaign for new app users
Optimize the keywords of your app with App Store Optimization
Focus first on getting 1 user, then 10, then 1000, then 10.000 – don’t try to make an impact on thousands of people from the start
Use the network effect to build a product that gets better when more people use it, and help people share your app with others
Set up an App Install campaign on Facebook, or use Search Ads in the App Store
Use SKStoreReviewController to ask app users for a review (which subsequently boosts your App Store ranking)
Improve your app meta data and screenshots, and tell people about the benefits of using your app (instead of just listing features)
Whatever you choose to do: stick with it. I don’t fear the warrior who has mastered a 1000 techniques, but I do fear the warrior who has done one technique a thousand times. The same goes for marketing: consistency is important!
Time: Publishing takes an afternoon, tops.
Cost: $99/year to publish in the App Store.
8. Market Your App to Reach the Right People
App Store Optimization
App developers are problem-solvers. Your app solves a problem for someone, and that’s what convinces them to install and use your app. But is that all there is to it?
Marketing helps to make change happen. Changing from an old solution to a new one, for instance. As an app developer, part of your work is helping people make that transition.
Marketing has a bad reputation, especially among tech-minded people. When thinking about marketing, they think about the sleazy door-to-door salesman, about how Facebook sells their private information, and about convincing people to buy stuff they don’t need.
Developers often think that good products don’t need marketing. When you need a 1/8″ hole, you buy the 1/8″ drill bit. It’s logical, right? What do you need marketing for?
Most products we buy aren’t as straightforward as drill bits. What makes people choose iPhone instead of Android? Why purchase a Tesla instead of a Volkswagen? Do people go to a 3 Michelin star restaurant just because they’re hungry?
Marketing is the voice that tells people who you are, what you stand for, and how you’re different from available alternatives. Marketing is about trust, empathy and making a connection with people.
It’s about having the humility to tell someone your solution might not be best for them, and about having the courage to speak to those that can benefit from what you’ve created.
Do you need marketing as an app developer? HELL YEAH! You want your ideas to spread, right? Your product gets better when the right people benefit.
Marketing is a way to reach those people. Use it wisely, and don’t hide behind logic. Marketing is a question you can’t solve with logic – the only way forward is by making a personal connection.
Where do you start? Ask 3 simple questions:
What problem does your app solve?
Who is your app for?
How can you reach those people?
Use the strategies we discussed, like writing about topics related to your app, optimizing your App Store ranking, starting an ad campaign, or onboarding new users. Help people discover that your app is meant for them.
Time: Help people discover your app, as much as you can.
Cost: Great marketing is free, and priceless.
Building apps isn’t just about coding – it’s about making change happen too! In my iOS development course you learn the basics of app business and marketing, as well as iOS development. » Learn more
9. Improve Your App with User Feedback
Onboard users and iterate on user feedback
Real user feedback is important for making an app. You use a user’s experience, and their feedback, to improve your app. So how do you do that?
Use app analytics to gather quantitive data
Use surveys and interviews to get qualitative data
Talk to your users regularly and build a personal connection
The easiest way to get feedback from the users of your app, is to simply send them a personal email to ask how they’re doing, and how they’re using your app. You literally ask: “How are you using my app?” No need for complex analytics!
The key is “how”. You don’t ask if they like your app, or how they want to see it improved, or what they think about a new feature. You can ask those questions, but they’re likely to give you opinionated answers. What you need is real-world answers.
In his book Don’t Make Me Think, Steve Krug argues that you want to watch real users as they’re using your app. You can ask them what motivated them to take a particular action in your app, or what they expected as a result, but you don’t want them to think too hard about the questions.
The risk of running surveys and focus groups is that people start to think about what they’re thinking, and think about how they would react in certain scenarios. It’s better to put them in the scenario you’re researching, and watch what they do!
Another risk is diving too deep into analytics tools, and only using analytics to make decisions about your app. You can’t paint an accurate picture about how your app is used just from looking at numbers. You need to make a personal connection with your app’s users, and talk to them, too.
Once you have done some of those feedback sessions, you identify interactions in your app that you thought would go differently. You compare your expectations against real-world results, and see if they match up. If they don’t, you either need to change your expectations, or change your app.
Make a list of potential improvements, and fix the items in these two categories:
Fix things that are obvious mistakes
Fix things that are easy to fix
Don’t make it too complicated, it’s not rocket science! Improve the things that need to be improved, and quickly launch a new version of your app.
The key to working with user feedback is experimenting with actions and results. No one knows what works best until you’ve tested it, and measured the results. The quicker your turn-around time on experiments and their improvements, the faster your app improves.
You can beta test your app with TestFlight. Simply invite some people to test your app, and send your next app build to them. You can invite up to 10.000 people, and they can provide quick feedback on your latest iteration.
Time: A few hours, up to a few days for UI/UX testing. Don’t overdo it.
Cost: Free, if you ask your customers. $100 for good testing tools.
Pfew, that’s quite a workflow! So what’s next?
First, it’s important that no creative work has ever been done by following a step-by-step template. You now know the steps, but your implementation of those steps is what counts in making a successful app.
Second, you need to treat your app as a business. It’s a business’ purpose to deliver value, and to keep the ability to deliver value by charging a fee. You get paid for being useful, and as a result you stay in business. It’s OK to play around, but it’s not a playground.
I recommend you figure out where you are in this app making process, and take the next step as best you can. Keep making progress, building momentum, gaining insights, and don’t stop. Before you know it, you’re making an impact with your app – or just have fun!
Good luck, and happy app making!
HTML in Visual Studio Code shortcuts for coding
Visual Studio Code provides basic support for HTML programming out of the box. There is syntax highlighting, smart completions with IntelliSense, and customizable formatting. VS Code also includes great Emmet support.
As you type in HTML, we offer suggestions via HTML IntelliSense. In the image below, you can see a suggested HTML element closure as well as a context specific list of suggested elements.
Document symbols are also available for HTML, allowing you to quickly navigate to DOM nodes by id and class name.
You can trigger suggestions at any time by pressing Ctrl+Space.
You can also control which built-in code completion providers are active. Override these in your user or workspace settings if you prefer not to see the corresponding suggestions.
// Configures if the built-in HTML language suggests HTML5 tags, properties and values.
Tag elements are automatically closed when > of the opening tag is typed.
The matching closing tag is inserted when / of the closing tag is entered.
You can turn off autoclosing tags with the following setting:
Auto update tags#
When modifying a tag, the linked editing feature automatically updates the matching closing tag. The feature is optional and can be enabled by setting:
The VS Code color picker UI is now available in HTML style sections.
color picker in HTML
It supports configuration of hue, saturation and opacity for the color that is picked up from the editor. It also provides the ability to trigger between different color modes by clicking on the color string at the top of the picker. The picker appears on a hover when you are over a color definition.
You can turn that validation off with the following settings:
// Configures if the built-in HTML language support validates embedded scripts.
// Configures if the built-in HTML language support validates embedded styles.
You can fold regions of source code using the folding icons on the gutter between line numbers and line start. Folding regions are available for all HTML elements for multiline comments in the source code.
Additionally you can use the following region markers to define a folding region: and
If you prefer to switch to indentation based folding for HTML use:
To improve the formatting of your HTML source code, you can use the Format Document command Shift+Alt+F to format the entire file or Format Selection Ctrl+K Ctrl+F to just format the selected text.
The HTML formatter is based on js-beautify. The formatting options offered by that library are surfaced in the VS Code settings:
html.format.wrapLineLength: Maximum amount of characters per line.
html.format.unformatted: List of tags that shouldn’t be reformatted.
html.format.contentUnformatted: List of tags, comma separated, where the content shouldn’t be reformatted.
html.format.extraLiners: List of tags that should have an extra newline before them.
html.format.preserveNewLines: Whether existing line breaks before elements should be preserved.
html.format.maxPreserveNewLines: Maximum number of line breaks to be preserved in one chunk.
html.format.endWithNewline: End with a newline.
html.format.indentInnerHtml: Indent and sections.
html.format.wrapAttributes: Wrapping strategy for attributes:
auto: Wrap when the line length is exceeded
force: Wrap all attributes, except first
force-aligned: Wrap all attributes, except first, and align attributes
force-expand-multiline: Wrap all attributes
aligned-multiple: Wrap when line length is exceeded, align attributes vertically
preserve: Preserve wrapping of attributes
preserve-aligned: Preserve wrapping of attributes but align
html.format.wrapAttributesIndentSize: Alignment size when using force aligned and aligned multiple in html.format.wrapAttributes or null to use the default indent size.
html.format.templating: Honor django, erb, handlebars and php templating language tags.
html.format.unformattedContentDelimiter: Keep text content together between this string.
The Marketplace has several alternative formatters to choose from. If you want to use a different formatter, define “html.format.enable”: false in your settings to turn off the built-in formatter.
VS Code supports Emmet snippet expansion. Emmet abbreviations are listed along with other suggestions and snippets in the editor auto-completion list.
Emmet HTML support built-in
Tip: See the HTML section of the Emmet cheat sheet for valid abbreviations.
If you’d like to use HTML Emmet abbreviations with other languages, you can associate one of the Emmet modes (such as css, html) with other languages with the emmet.includeLanguages setting. The setting takes a language id and associates it with the language id of an Emmet supported mode.
We also support User Defined Snippets.
HTML custom data#
You can extend VS Code’s HTML support through a declarative custom data format. By setting html.customData to a list of JSON files following the custom data format, you can enhance VS Code’s understanding of new HTML tags, attributes and attribute values. VS Code will then offer language support such as completion & hover information for the provided tags, attributes and attribute values.
You can read more about using custom data in the vscode-custom-data repository.
Install an extension to add more functionality. Go to the Extensions view (Ctrl+Shift+X) and type ‘html’ to see a list of relevant extensions to help with creating and editing HTML.
HTML CSS Support
HTML CSS Support
CSS Intellisense for HTML
Full HTML tags including HTML5 Snippets
IntelliSense for CSS class names in HTML
IntelliSense for CSS class names in HTML
CSS class name completion for the HTML class attribute based on the definitions found in your workspace.
VS Code integration for HTMLHint – A Static Code Analysis Tool for HTML
Tip: Click on an extension tile above to read the description and reviews to decide which extension is best for you. See more in the Marketplace.
Read on to find out about:
CSS, SCSS, and Less – VS Code has first class support for CSS including Less and SCSS.
Emmet – Learn about VS Code’s powerful built-in Emmet support.
Emmet official documentation – Emmet, the essential toolkit for web-developers.
Does VS Code have HTML preview?#
No, VS Code doesn’t have built-in support for HTML preview but there are extensions available in the VS Code Marketplace. Open the Extensions view (Ctrl+Shift+X) and search on ‘live preview’ or ‘html preview’ to see a list of available HTML preview extensions.
Responsive Web Design (RWD) and User Experience
Defining Responsive Design
Responsive web design (RWD) is a web development approach that creates dynamic changes to the appearance of a website, depending on the screen size and orientation of the device being used to view it. RWD is one approach to the problem of designing for the multitude of devices available to customers, ranging from tiny phones to huge desktop monitors.
RWD uses so-called breakpoints to determine how the layout of a site will appear: one design is used above a breakpoint and another design is applied below that breakpoint. The breakpoints are commonly based on the width of the browser.
This brief video (0:37) shows the responsive Transport for London website changing as the browser window is narrowed and widened.
Summary: Responsive design teams create a single site to support many devices, but need to consider content, design and performance across devices to ensure usability.
Learn by Examples
Examples are better than 1000 words. Examples are often easier to understand than text explanations.
This tutorial supplements all explanations with clarifying “Try it Yourself” examples.
1. HTML to define the content of web pages
2. CSS to specify the layout of web pages
How to Change Your Career from Web Design to UX Design
Changing careers isn’t as hard as it’s often made out to be, especially if you’ve got the right resources to help you make the change. For many web designers, now is the perfect time to make the switch into UX design. To start with, there’s the monetary boost that comes with the change in career. According to PayScale, web designers in the US earn an average of $46,000 annually(1), while UX designers on the other hand earn a sizeable $74,000(2). Secondly, job opportunities for UX designers are booming: CNN reports that a total of 3,426,000 UX design jobs will be created in the US alone within the next 10 years(3). Furthermore, UX design is a meaningful job, not only because you get to work on a product from the inside out, but also because—as DMI has shown—UX design makes a significant impact on businesses, with UX design-driven businesses outperforming the S&P index by 228%(4). So, where do you find the right resources to help you make your career change? Why, you’re reading one right now.
5 Ways to Prepare For a Career Change into UX Design
1. Get to grips with the industry
2. Take inventory of your skills
3. Immerse yourself in the field
4. Get social
5. Set realistic goals
read more https://www.workshopper.com/post/career-change-into-ux
watch more in YouTube https://youtu.be/O9GYy2cNgOs
What is Web Design?
Web design refers to the design of websites that are displayed on the internet. It usually refers to the user experience aspects of website development rather than software development. Web design used to be focused on designing websites for desktop browsers; however, since the mid-2010s, design for mobile and tablet browsers has become ever-increasingly important.
A web designer works on the appearance, layout, and, in some cases, content of a website. Appearance, for instance, relates to the colors, font, and images used. Layout refers to how information is structured and categorized. A good web design is easy to use, aesthetically pleasing, and suits the user group and brand of the website. Many webpages are designed with a focus on simplicity, so that no extraneous information and functionality that might distract or confuse users appears. As the keystone of a web designer’s output is a site that wins and fosters the trust of the target audience, removing as many potential points of user frustration as possible is a critical consideration.
Two of the most common methods for designing websites that work well both on desktop and mobile are responsive and adaptive design. In responsive design, content moves dynamically depending on screen size; in adaptive design, the website content is fixed in layout sizes that match common screen sizes. Preserving a layout that is as consistent as possible between devices is crucial to maintaining user trust and engagement. As responsive design can present difficulties in this regard, designers must be careful in relinquishing control of how their work will appear. If they are responsible for the content as well, while they may need to broaden their skillset, they will enjoy having the advantage of full control of the finished product.
read more on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_design
watch more in YouTube https://youtu.be/F4fbwKV9dBU
Here are the essentials on how to start coding on your own
1. Come up with a simple project.
2. Get the software you’ll need.
3. Join communities about how to start coding.
4. Read a few books.
5. How to start coding with YouTube.
6. Listen to a podcast.
7. Run through a tutorial.
8. Try some games on how to start coding.